# How to Calculate Square in R

You can square a number, vector, matrix, and data frame in R. This guide will show you how to calculate the square of a single value, vector, matrix, and data frame in R.

## Calculate the Square of a Single Value in R

There are 3 ways to calculate the square of a vector in R.

### Method #1: Using the ^ operator

To calculate the square of a single value, use the ^ operator.

For example, to calculate the square of 5, you would use the following code:

5^2

[1] 25

### Method #2:  Using the * operator

You can square a number using the multiplication operator, also known as an asterisk symbol (‘*’). To use it, take the number and multiply it by itself. For example, to take the square of 5, you can use the following formula:

5*5

[1] 25

### Method #3: Using the ** operator

You can also square a number using the double asterisk ** operator. So we type the number to square, then **, and end with 2. For example, to get the square of 5, use the following formula:

5**2

[1] 25

## Calculate the Square of a Vector in R

There are three ways to calculate the square of a vector in R.

### Method #1: Using the ^ operator

To calculate the square of a vector, use the ^ operator.

For example, if you have a vector x = c(1,2,3), you can calculate the square of each element in the vector using the following code:

x = c(1,2,3)
x^2

[1] 1 4 9

### Method #2: Using the * operator

Alternatively, you can use the * operator to square a vector.

#### Syntax

vector * vector

For example, if you have a vector x = c(1,2,3) you would use this code:

x = c(1,2,3)
x*x

[1] 1 4 9

### Method #3: Using the ** operator

Use the ** operator to square a vector.

#### Syntax

vector ** 2

For example, if you have a vector x = c(1,2,3) you would use this code:

x = c(1,2,3)
x**2

[1] 1 4 9

## Calculate the Square of a Matrix in R

To calculate the square of a matrix in R, use the ^ operator with the matrix.

For example, if you have a matrix A = matrix(1:9, 3, 3) you can calculate the square of each element in the matrix using the following code:

A = matrix(1:9, 3, 3)
A^2

#### Output

[1] 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81

## Calculate the Square of a Data Frame in R

To calculate the square of a data frame in R, use the ^ operator with the data frame.

For example, if you have a data frame df, you can calculate the square of each element in the data frame using the following code:

df = data.frame(x = c(1,2,3), y = c(4,5,6))
df^2

x y
1 1 16
2 4 25
3 9 36